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THE KNOWLEDGE QUARTET:
A FRAMEWORK FOR REFLECTION, DISCUSSION AND = PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Tim Row= land, Anne Thwaites and Peter Huckstep
Univers= ity of Cambridge, UK
The Fifteenth ICMI Study
Á= ;guas de Lindóia, Brazil :15 – 21 May 2005
tr202@c= am.ac.uk
3D"University
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file:///C:/304ADD14/KnowledgeQuartet_files/slide0065.htm Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Content-Type: text/html; charset="us-ascii" The Knowledge Quartet - ICMI-15
=
=
Session Structure
Introduct= ion – background, the study,
the Knowledge Quartet
The Case = of Chloe (primary age 5-6)
Groups &#= 8211; Jeremy (secondary, age 13-14)
Discussio= n
------=_NextPart_01C57358.EB6AF9E0 Content-Location: file:///C:/304ADD14/KnowledgeQuartet_files/slide0010.htm Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Content-Type: text/html; charset="us-ascii" The Knowledge Quartet - ICMI-15
=
=
SKIMA&= #13;
‘Subject Knowledge in Mathematics’ = ;
http://skima.maths-ed.org.uk/
Peter Huckstep, Tim Rowl= and,
Anne Thwaites, Fay Turner <= /span>
University of Cambridge
R= 26;Patti Barber, Carolyn Heal
Institute of Education, University of London= 3;
R= 26;Maria Goulding
University of York
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VUSdd4W1tCCKqeGFYVIFGRXagjX6tONqV1HWVk0egUY0CAtl3Xnqei2OZOmVweFFamqIIcBWRghg 4wVXB47GEWOiAtsrbjAZSNRQ1CIkrYZItTTXFVcMBaZEPJVYYmrijkbSWQEBADs= ------=_NextPart_01C57358.EB6AF9E0 Content-Location: file:///C:/304ADD14/KnowledgeQuartet_files/slide0046.htm Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Content-Type: text/html; charset="us-ascii" The Knowledge Quartet - ICMI-15
=
Lee Shulman’s seven categories of teacher knowledge:
·content knowledge (SMK) - ‘substantive’ and ‘syntactic’; <= /span>
·curriculum knowledge - materials and programmes;
·pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) - includes forms of representation of concepts, useful analogies, examples, demonstrations;
·general pedagogical knowledge - generic principles of classroom management;
·knowledge of learners;
·knowledge of educational contexts, communities and cultures;
·knowledge of educational purposes and values. =
= = Shulman, L. S. (1987) ‘Knowledge and teachin= g: Foundations of the new reform.’ Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), pp. 1-22
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=
=
= Lee Shulman (1986) ‘Those who understand: knowledge growth in teaching’. Educational Researcher 15(2), pp 4-14.
SUBJECT MATTER KNOWLEDGE (SMK)
= Knowledge of the content of the discipline = per se. Includes substantive knowledge (the key facts, concepts, principles and explanatory frameworks = in a discipline) and syntactic knowledge (the nature of enquiry in the field, = and how new knowledge is introduced and accepted i= n that community).
PEDAGOGICAL CONTENT KNOWLEDGE (PCK)
The link between knowing something for oneself and= being able to enable others = to come to know it. Includes “the ways of representing the subject which makes it comprehensible to others…[it]= also includes an underst= anding of what makes the learning of specific topics easy or = difficult”.
CURRICULAR KNOWLEDGE
Knowledge of the scope and sequence of teaching programmes and the materia= ls used in them.
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=
=
<= span style=3D'mso-special-format:nobullet;display:none'>•England - DfEE Circular 10/97, later 10/98<= span style=3D'font-size:81%'>
Requirements for C= ourses of ITT
“All providers of ITT must audit trainees' knowledge and understanding of the mathematics contained in the National Curriculum programmes of study for = mathematics at KS1 and KS2, and that specified in = paragraph 13 of this document. 
= Where gaps= in trainees' subject knowledge are = = identified, providers of ITT must make arrangements to ensure that trainees gain that = knowledge during the course and that, by the end of the course, they are competent in using the mathematics in their teaching”.
------=_NextPart_01C57358.EB6AF9E0 Content-Location: file:///C:/304ADD14/KnowledgeQuartet_files/slide0055.htm Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Content-Type: text/html; charset="us-ascii" The Knowledge Quartet - ICMI-15
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WHICH TOPICS DO TRAINEES FIND DIFFICULT?
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SUBJECT KNOWLEDGE AND MATHEMATICS TEACHING PERFORMANCE (149 PGCE STUDENTS)
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Rowland, T., Martyn, S., Barber, P. and Heal, C. (2000) ‘Primary teacher trainees’ mathematics subject knowledge and classroom performance’ Research in Mathematics Education Volume 2. British Society for Research into Learning = Mathematics, pp. 3-18
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NEW REGULATIONS
Teachers need a high level of subject knowledge an= d understanding relevant to the pupils’ curriculum. = Secure subject knowledge enables teachers to … support pupils’ learning. Secure <= span style=3D'position:absolute;top:29.5%;left:8.42%;width:92.69%;height:4.5%'>= and accurate subject knowledge also helps teachers= to answer pupils’ ques= tions fully, respond to pupils’ common misconceptions = and make appropriate interventions to move their learning on. (TTA, 2= 002, p. 18)
NEW APPROACH
= Evidence of secure subject knowledge and understan= ding is most likely to be found in trainee teachers’ teaching, particularly in how they present complex ideas, communicate subject knowledge, correct pupilsR= 17; errors and in how confidently they answer their subject-based questions. (TTA, 2002, p. 19)
TTA (2002b) <= i>Qualifying to Teach: Professional Standards for the Award of Qualified Teacher Status. Handbook= of Guidance. London: Teacher = Training Agency.
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THE SCHOOL-BASED PLACEMENT
(pract= icum, ‘teaching practice’)
Primary PGCE: about 18 weeks (out of 36)
Secondary PGCE: about 24 weeks
‘Employment-based’ routes: 30+ weeks&#= 13;
Placeme= nt lesson observation is normally followed by a review meeti= ng between partnership tutor (and/or mentor) and tra= inee.
Such me= etings typically focus heavily on organis= ational features of the lesson, with very little attention to mathematical aspects of mathematics lessons (Brown, McNamara, Jones and Ha= nley, 1999). In one recent study, only 2% of mentorsR= 17; suggestions to beginning teachers related to the subject ma= tter being taught (Strong and Baron, 2004).
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= SKIMA MATHEMATICS TEACHING
VIDEO STUDY (May= 2002 - )
&= sect; AIM: To develop an empirically-based conceptual framework for the discussion of mathematical aspects of mathematics lessons, between teacher educators, trainees and teacher-mentors, in the context of school-based placements.
&= sect; QUESTION: In what ways is teachers’ mathematics content knowledge (SMK and PCK) seen to ‘pla= y out’ in the classroom, in their teaching of = mathematics? Can teachers develop their teaching <= /span>by attending to this knowledge? =
&= sect;
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METHOD
<= span style=3D'font-size:63%'>Primary PG= CE trainees (150): Lower Primary or Upper Primary.
February: = Audit of mathematics subject knowledge. Outcome determines categories high, medium, low on subject knowledge.
May: Selec= t 12 trainees for observation in final 8 week school-based placement. Sample reflects diversity w.r.t. = phase LP/UP and audit outcomes=
<= span style=3D'font-size:63%'>Observe and videotape mathematics lessons in weeks 5 and 7.
<= span style=3D'font-size:63%'>Observer w= rites a brief Descriptive Synopsis of each lesson.
<= span style=3D'font-size:63%'>Team refin= es the DS to an extended Analytical Ac= count.
Grounded theory approach to generating the= ory (Glaser and Strauss= ): critical moments/episodes identified, categorised and coded. Constant comparison within and between lessons.
Focus on t= he trainee’s mathematics content knowledge (not just general pedagogical issues).
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AC anticipation of complexity <= /span>
AP awareness of purpose
ATB adherence to textbook
CE choice of examples
COP concentration on procedures
CR choice of representation= 3;
DA deviation from agenda
DC child demonstration
DS decisions about sequencing
DT demonstration
IE identifying errors
MC making connections
OSK overt subject knowledge
RCA recognising conceptual appropriateness&#= 13;
RCI responding to children’s ideas=
TU theoretical underpinning
UO use of opportunities
UT use of terminology
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THE KNOWLEDGE QUARTET
·FOUNDATION
·TRANSFORMATION
·CONNECTION
·CONTINGENCY
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FOUNDATION
adheres to textbook; awareness of purpose; concent= ration on procedures; identifying err= ors; overt subject knowledge ; theoretical underpinning; use of terminology
TRANSFORMATION
choice of examples; choice of representation; demonstration
CONNECTION
anticipation of complexity; decisions about sequen= cing; making connections; recognition of conceptual appropriateness
CONTINGENCY
deviation from agenda; responding to children̵= 7;s ideas; use of opport= unities
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FOUNDATION
What teachers learn in their personal education and in their training. ‘Theoretical’ knowledge.
Key components:
knowledge = and understanding of mathematics per se;
= knowledge = of significant tracts of the literature and thinking which has resulted from systematic enquiry into the teaching and learning of mat= hematics;
<= span style=3D'font-size:81%'>espoused <= /span>beliefs about mathematics,
<= span style=3D'font-size:81%'>beliefs ab= out why and how mathematics is learnt.
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TRANSFORMATION
Knowledge-in-action as demonstrated both in planning to teach and in the act of teaching itself.
Pupil-dire= cted  behaviour which follows from deliberation and judgement.
“the capacity of a teacher to transform the content knowledge he or she possesses into = forms that are pedagogically powerful” (Shulman, 1987)
Use of analogies, illustrations, examples, explanations and demonstrations (Shulman, 1986).
<= span style=3D'font-size:81%'>Choice of examples.
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CONNECTION
The coherence of the planning or teaching displayed across an episode, lesson or series of <= /span>lessons
= Effective Teachers of Numeracy (Askew, Brown, Rhodes, Wiliam and Johnson, 1997) – the ‘connectionist’ orientation.
awareness = of the relative cognitive demands of different topics and tasks.
sequencing= of topics of instruction within and between lessons
<= span style=3D'font-size:81%'>the orderi= ng of tasks and exercises
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CONTINGENCY
About decisions and actions in-the-moment -&nbs= p; the ability to ‘think on one’s feet’.
<= span style=3D'font-size:88%'>readiness = to respond to children’s ideas&= #13;
and in consequence -
preparedne= ss to deviate from an agenda set out when the lesson was prepared.
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CHLOE’S LESSON. YEAR 1/2, PUPIL = AGE 5-7
Learning objectives: “Children sh= ould be able to subtract 9, 11, 19 and 21 using the appropriate strategies”.
NNS Framew= ork: “24-9=3D15 because it is the same as 24-10+1”
Mental and Oral Starter [3 minutes] Recall of complements in 10 and 20. <= /span>Chloe asks a number of questions such as ‘Ho= w many must I add to 17 to make 20?’, ‘How many more than 7 is 10?’
= Introduction to the Main Activi= ty [14 minutes]. Chloe reminds the class that in their previous lesson they added 9, 11, 19 and 21 to various 1-digit and 2-digit whole numbers. Chloe demonstrates how to subtract these = same numbers by subtracting 10 or 20 f= irst, then adding or subtracting 1. She models the procedure on a large 1-100 square, moving a counter vertic= ally and horizontally. At the end of the demonstration, Chloe lists an <= /span>= example of each of the four subtractio= ns on a whiteboard.
Group tasks. [23 minutes] Diffe= rentiated worksheet exercises that Chloe has prepared. The ‘more able’ children subtract 19 and 21, the others subtract 9 and 11.
= Plenary [4 minutes]. Chloe and the children consider 30 – 19 and 43 – 21 = together.
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CHLOE’S LESSON: FOUNDATION
NNS emphasis on mental calculation methods in Years R-3&= #13;
Sequential (or cumulative) strategies for addition= and subtraction.
= Concerning addition and subtraction of near multip= les of 10: the NNS Framework exam= ples lump together different dimensions of complexity, <= i>viz:
= Dimension 1: Addition or subtraction. The first le= sson had dealt exclusively with addition, the second with subtraction.
Dimension 2: Near multiples of 10 or 20. Chloe has planned for the lower-attaini= ng pupils to work exclusively with 9 and 11.
Dimension 3: One more or one less than 10/20. Addi= tion and subtraction of 11/21 e= ntail a sequence of actions in the same<= /i> direction i.e. aggregation or reduction; whereas 9/19 require a change= of direction for the final unit i.e. compensation.
<= span style=3D'mso-special-format:nobullet;display:none'>•Discussion point: what considerations determined Chloe’s choice <= span style=3D'position:absolute;top:77.75%;left:8.42%;width:91.57%;height:4.5%'= >of worksheet problems for the two ‘ability&#= 8217; groups in the class?
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CHLOE’S LESSON: TRANSFORMATION 1 =
= Use of the 100 square as a model or representation of two-digit numbers. Chloe’s lesson = plan suggests that the decision to use it was ‘last minute’. <= /span>
= The 100 square is particularly useful for represen= ting place-value aspects, although a 0-99 square does this better.
The children are forbidden to use 100 squares when= they do the worksheet exercise= s. The four ‘model’ solutions that Chloe writes for reference on the board follow the NNS Fra= mework format e.g. 70 - 9 =3D ?, 70 - 10 + 1 =3D 61
There is a tension between the spatial language and imagery of the 100 square and the symbol= ic NNS format.
For example, subtracting 9 from 70, she places the counter on 70:
Chloe:= Right, there’s 70. […] From 70 I want to take away nine. What will I = do? Rebecca?
Rachel: Go up one.
Chloe: = No, don’t tell me what I’m= gonna go up or move, tell me what I act= ually do.
= Discussion point: What led Chloe to use the 100 square? Had she considered using an e= mpty number line as an alternative way= of representing the numbers and their difference, of clarifying when compensation is necessary, and why?
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CHLOE’S LESSON: TRANSFORMATION 2 =
Choice of Examples
= Immediately following the initial review of additi= on, Chloe demonstrates subtr= action by subtracting 19 from 70
Subtracting 11 and 21 might be a better starting p= oint (recall ‘dimensions = of variation’)
= 70 is on the extreme right boundary of the 1 to 100 square. After moving = up two squares to 50, there is no ‘right one’ square: it is then necessary to move down and to the extreme lef= t of the next row, so the ‘knights move’ is obscured.
One of the NNS Framework examples (above) is 70 &#= 8211; 11; all four of Chloe&#= 8217;s whiteboard ‘template’ examples were of the form 70 - n. = ;
Discussion point: Was Chloe aware in-the-moment of the complication with 70-19? Did she anticipate it in = her planning? Did the sym= bolic form in her written plan (70 - 20 +1) perhaps obscure the consequences of her using the 100 square for t= his calculation?
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CHLOE’S LESSON: CONNECTION
= Chloe makes explicit links with the previous lesson on adding near-= multiples of 10, and reviews the relevant strategi= es at the start of this one.
= Her oral and mental starter, on complements to 10 = and 20, focuses on the concept= of subtraction as comparison (‘difference’), whereas the strategy= = taught in the main activity is ‘take away’
Chloe could have exploited the comparison structur= e in the main activity.
Her approach to differentiation for the different = groups was to emphasise the similarity between 9 and 11 (needing an initial subtract-10) and between 19 and 21 (subtract-20), when the pairing = of 11 and 21 (consistent reduct= ion) and 9 and 19 (needing compensation) was an alternative form of connection.
= Discussion point: discussion could usefully focus on the two subtraction = structures, how they relate to the first two phase= s of the lesson, and whether comparison strategies might offer useful alternatives to ‘take-way <= /span>= with compensation’, in the case of subtracti= ng 9/19.
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CHLOE’S LESSON: CONTINGENCY
In the review= of ‘adding 9’ at the beginning of the lesson, Chloe invites one of the pupils to demonstrate:
Chloe: = Show the class how you add ten and take away one on a number square. What’s the easy way to add ten on a number square? Cameron.
Cameron: Go diagonally.
Chloe:= Not diagonally. To add ten you just go…
Cameron: Down.
Cameron’s elegant use of vocabulary alone is worth a moment’s pause.
His initial suggestion is not, strictly, a correct answer to her “add ten” question. It does, however, offer a nice spatial way of thin= king about adding 9 and 11.
The fact that adding 9 corresponds to a diagonal south-west move might useful= ly connect to the insight that subtracting 9 would necessitate a north-east <= /span>move, and the consequent need to add on= e after subtracting 10.
Discussion point: Did Chloe recall Cameron’s suggestion? If so, how did she feel about it at the time, and how might she have responded differently?
Note: the second question is not intended as a reb= uke or correction: there are often very good reasons for teachers sticking to their chosen path.
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KNOWLEDGE QUARTET: APPLICATION 1
In guidelines for observing, supporting and assessing trainee teachers teaching mathematics. Distributed to all teachers involved in mentoring Primary PGCE Trainees. Subsequently adopted as a model for other subjects
Purpose -
To move fr= om on Numeracy Strategy criteria for observing and assessing
To focus on trainees’ mathematical subject knowledge including pedagogy
To make us= e of the four KQ dimensions as basis for lesson observation
To give sp= ecific examples of questions to ask regarding trainees’ planning and teaching in relation to the four dime= nsions
Outcome-
= Well received by mentors – teachers like the specific focus on mathematics content and pedagogy
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KNOWLEDGE QUARTET: APPLICATION 2
Within the Primary PGCE and KS2/3 (8-14) PGCE courses
The four dimensions of the Knowledge Quartet are introduced and presented as a structure for lesson planning, cond= uct and evaluation.
References= are made to the Knowledge Quartet and video is used in sessions. The ‘quartet’ provides a str= ucture for evaluation of lessons shown in the video.
Extracts f= rom SKIMA videos are shown as illustrations of, and starters for discussion about effectiveness of mathematics teaching. 
Example: In a session on written methods of multiplication and division a video was used showing a trainee introducing the column method while referring back to the previous lesson on the grid method:
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Second phase of research (May 2004 - )
Morning: Video one lesson taught by the trainee on final placement.
Afternoon: Research team view the tape and identify key episodes, from the perspective of the Knowledg= e Quartet.
Late afternoon: Trainee and one team member view the tape (stimulated recall) and discuss episodes = identified by the trainee and the team. Audio recording transcribed later.
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JEREMY= 217;S LESSON
Year 8 (age 13-14) ‘Bottom’ set (3 of = 3), 13 pupils
= Learning objectives: Elicit and compare pupils’ strategies for 2-digit addition and subtraction
<= span style=3D'font-size:63%'> mental; written; using number line= s
<= span style=3D'font-size:63%;visibility:hidden'>
= NB A ‘CAME’ lesson (cognit= ive acceleration in mathematics education: Munder Adhami, David Johnson and Micha= el Shayer, King’s College London)
Phase 1: Whole class, 15 + 28
Phase 2: Paired work 47 + 18 using CAME worksheet
Phase 3: Paired work 47 - 18 using CAME worksheet
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ICMI-15 G= ROUP TASK
You have observed the lesson as Jeremy’s university PGCE tutor. What aspects of the = = lesson will you identify for discussion with Jeremy in a 30-minute review meeting, with a focus on the mathematical content= ?
= Is it useful (or possible) to structure the discussion within the framework of the = Knowledge Quartet?
Foundation, Transformation, Connection, Contingency.
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THE KNOWLEDGE QUARTET:
A FRAMEWORK FOR REFLECTION, DISCUSSION AND = PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Tim Row= land, Anne Thwaites and Peter Huckstep
Univers= ity of Cambridge, UK
The Fifteenth ICMI Study
Á= ;guas de Lindóia, Brazil :15 – 21 May 2005
tr202@c= am.ac.uk
3D"University
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‹header›
‹date/time›=
Click to edit Master text styles
Second level
Third level
Fourth level
Fifth level
‹footer›
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=3D parseInt(gSldJumpIdx); gSldJump =3D 0; gSldJumpIdx =3D ""; win.GoToSld( parent.GetSldList().mList[jumpTo-1].mSldHref ) } } } function _KDH() { if( event.keyCode =3D=3D 8 ) { event.returnValue =3D 0; parent.GoToPrevSld(); } } function PlaySound( href, loop ){ href=3D unescape(href); if( window.event ) window.event.cancelBubble =3D true; pptSound.src =3D href; pptSound.loop =3D loop ? -1 : 0; } function DocumentOnClick() { if( IsNts() || parent.HideMenu() ) return; if( ( g_allowAdvOnClick && !parent.IsFramesMode() ) || (event && (event.keyCode=3D=3D32) ) ) parent.GoToNextSld(); } var g_supportsPPTHTML =3D SupportsPPTHTML(), g_scaleInFrame =3D 1, gId=3D""= , g_bgSound=3D"", g_scaleHyperlinks =3D false, g_allowAdvOnClick =3D 1, g_showInBrowser = =3D 0, gLoopCont =3D 0, gUseSldTimings =3D 1; var g_showAnimation =3D g_supportsPPTHTML && SupportsPPTAnimation() && ( (w= indow.name=3D=3D"PPTSld" && !parent.IsFramesMode()) || g_showInBrowser );va= r g_animManager =3D null; var g_animUseRuntime =3D false; var g_animItemsToHide, g_animInteractiveItems, g_animSlideTime; var g_animMainSequence =3D null; var ENDSHOW_MESG=3D"End of slide show, click to exit.", SCREEN_MODE=3D"Fram= es", gIsEndShow=3D0, NUM_VIS_SLDS=3D31, SCRIPT_HREF=3D"script.js", FULLSCR_= HREF=3D"fullscreen.htm"; var gCurSld =3D gPrevSld =3D 1, g_offset =3D 0, gNtsOpen =3D gHasNts =3D gO= tlTxtExp =3D 0, gHasNarration =3D 0, gOtlOpen =3D true window.gPPTHTML=3DSupportsPPTHTML() var gMainDoc=3Dnew Array(new hrefList("slide0006.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList(= "slide0065.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slide0010.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("= slide0046.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slide0007.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("s= lide0054.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slide0055.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("sl= ide0056.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slide0057.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("sli= de0061.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slide0060.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slid= e0017.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slide0028.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slide= 0008.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slide0048.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slide0= 019.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slide0020.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slide00= 21.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slide0022.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slide002= 4.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slide0044.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slide0049= .htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slide0050.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slide0052.= htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slide0051.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slide0026.h= tm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slide0027.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slide0059.ht= m",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slide0063.htm",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slide0036.htm= ",1,-1,1),new hrefList("slide0058.htm",1,-1,1)); /********************************************* Frameset functions These functions control slide navigation and state of the frameset. **********************************************/ function FullScrInit() { g_allowAdvOnClick =3D GetCurSld().mAdvOnClk document.body.style.backgroundColor=3D"black" document.oncontextmenu=3Dparent._CM; document.onkeydown =3D _KDH; document.ondragstart=3DCancel document.onselectstart=3DCancel self.focus() } function Redirect( frmId ) {=09 var str=3Ddocument.location.hash,idx=3Dstr.indexOf('#'), sId=3DGetSldId() if(idx>=3D0) str=3Dstr.substr(1); if( window.name !=3D frmId && ( sId !=3D str) ) { obj =3D GetObj("Main-File") window.location.href=3Dobj.href+"#"+sId return 1 } return 0 } var MHTMLPrefix =3D CalculateMHTMLPrefix();=20 function CalculateMHTMLPrefix() { if ( document.location.protocol =3D=3D 'mhtml:') {=20 href=3Dnew String(document.location.href)=20 Start=3Dhref.indexOf('!')+1=20 End=3Dhref.lastIndexOf('/')+1=20 if (End < Start)=20 return href.substring(0, Start)=20 else=20 return href.substring(0, End)=20 } return ''; } function GetTags(base,tag) { if(g_supportsPPTHTML) return base.all.tags(tag); else return base.getElementsByTagName(tag); } function UpdNtsPane(){ if(frames["PPTNts"]) PPTNts.location.replace( MHTMLP= refix+GetHrefObj( gCurSld ).mNtsHref ) } function UpdNavPane( sldIndex ){ if(gNavLoaded) PPTNav.UpdNav() } function UpdOtNavPane(){ if(gOtlNavLoaded) PPTOtlNav.UpdOtlNav() } function UpdOtlPane(){ if(gOtlLoaded) PPTOtl.UpdOtl() } function SetHasNts( fVal ) { if( gHasNts !=3D fVal ) { gHasNts=3DfVal UpdNavPane() } } function ToggleOtlText() { gOtlTxtExp=3D!gOtlTxtExp UpdOtlPane() } function ClearMedia() { // Clear any sounds playing before launching another browser window. Other= wise, // in fullscreen mode, you'll continue to hear the sound in the frames mod= e. if (PPTSld.pptSound) PPTSld.pptSound.loop =3D 0; } function FullScreen() {=20 if ( PPTSld.g_animUseRuntime ) PPTSld.document.body.pause(); ClearMedia(); var href =3D ( document.location.protocol =3D=3D 'mhtml:') ? FULLSCR_HREF = : FULLSCR_HREF+"#"+GetHrefObj(gCurSld).mSldHref; if(PPTNav.event.ctrlKey) { var w =3D (window.screen.availWidth * 1.0) / 2.0 var h =3D w * (PPTSld.g_origH * 1.0) / PPTSld.g_origW win =3D window.open( MHTMLPrefix+href,null,"toolbar=3D0,resizable=3D1,top= =3D0,left=3D0," + "width=3D"+ w + ",height=3D" + h ); if( win.document.body && PPTSld.g_animUseRuntime ) win.document.body.PPTSldFrameset=3Dwindow; } else { win =3D window.open( MHTMLPrefix+href,null,"fullscreen=3Dyes" ); if( win.document.body && PPTSld.g_animUseRuntime ) win.document.body.PPTSldFrameset=3Dwindow; } } function ToggleVNarration() { rObj=3DPPTSld.document.all("NSPlay") if( rObj && !PPTSld.g_animUseRuntime ) { if( (rObj.playState =3D=3D 1)||(rObj.playState =3D=3D 0) ) rObj.Play() else if( rObj.playState =3D=3D 2 ) rObj.Pause() else return; } else if( PPTSld.g_animUseRuntime ) { narObj =3D PPTSld.document.all("narrationID") if( narObj ) narObj.togglePause() } } function GetCurSldNum() { =20 obj=3DGetHrefObj(gCurSld) if( obj.mOrigVis =3D=3D 1 ) return obj.mSldIdx else =20 return gCurSld } function GetNumSlds() { =20 if( GetHrefObj(gCurSld).mOrigVis =3D=3D 1 ) return GetSldList().mNumVisSlds; else return GetSldList().mList.length } function GetSldNum( href ) { for(ii=3D0; ii 1 ) PopSldList(); else if( !IsFramesMode() ) { if( gLoopCont ) GoToFirst() else EndShow() } } function GoToPrevSld() { ii=3DgCurSld-1 if( ii > 0 ) { obj=3DGetHrefObj(ii) while ( obj && ( obj.mVis =3D=3D 0 ) && ( ii>0 ) ) obj=3DGetHrefObj(--ii) if( ii =3D=3D 0 ) ii=3D1 GoToSldNum(ii) } } function GoToFirst(){ GoToSld( GetHrefObj(1).mSldHref ) } function GoToLast() { ii=3DGetSldList().mList.length if( ii !=3D gCurSld ) GoToSld( GetHrefObj(ii).mSldHref ) } function GoToSldNum( num ) { if( PPTSld.event ) PPTSld.event.cancelBubble=3Dtrue obj =3D GetHrefObj( num ) obj.mVis=3D1 gPrevSld=3DgCurSld gCurSld =3D num; PPTSld.location.replace(MHTMLPrefix+obj.mSldHref) if( IsFramesMode() ) { UpdNavPane(); UpdOtlPane(); UpdNtsPane() } } function GoToSld( href ) { if( PPTSld.event ) PPTSld.event.cancelBubble=3Dtrue GetHrefObj( GetSldNum(href) ).mVis=3D1 PPTSld.location.replace(MHTMLPrefix+href) } function SldUpdated( id ) { if( id =3D=3D GetHrefObj(gCurSld).mSldHref ) return gPrevSld=3DgCurSld gCurSld=3DGetSldNum(id) if( IsFramesMode() ) { UpdNavPane(); UpdOtlPane(); UpdNtsPane() } } function PrevSldViewed(){ GoToSld( GetHrefObj(gPrevSld).mSldHref ) } function HasPrevSld() { return ( gIsEndShow || ( gCurSld !=3D 1 && GetHrefO= bj( gCurSld-1 ).mVis =3D=3D 1 )||( GetCurSldNum() > 1 ) ) } function HasNextSld() { return (GetCurSldNum() !=3D GetNumSlds()) } function CloseWindow() { if( HideMenu() ) return; =09 var event =3D PPTSld.event; if( !IsFramesMode() && event && (event.keyCode=3D=3D27 || event.keyCode=3D= =3D32 || event.type=3D=3D"click" ) ) window.close( self ); CatchNumKeys( self, event ); } function Unload() { gIsEndShow=3D0; } function SetupEndShow() { gIsEndShow=3D1; PPTSld.document.body.scroll=3D"no"; PPTSld.document.onkeypress=3DCloseWindow; PPTSld.document.onclick=3DCloseWindow; PPTSld.document.oncontextmenu=3D_CM; } function EndShow() { if( IsFramesMode() ) return if( PPTSld.event ) PPTSld.event.cancelBubble=3Dtrue doc=3DPPTSld.document var dir =3D doc.body.dir if( dir !=3D "rtl" ) dir =3D "ltr"; doc.open() doc.writeln('


' + ENDSHOW_MESG + '

') doc.close() } function SetSldVisited(){ GetSldList().mList[gCurSld-1].mVisited=3Dtrue } function IsSldVisited(){ return GetSldList().mList[gCurSld-1].mVisited } function hrefList( sldHref, visible, advDelay, advClk ) { this.mSldHref=3D this.mNtsHref =3D sldHref this.mOrigVis=3D this.mVis =3D visible this.mVisited=3D false this.mAdvDelay=3D advDelay this.mAdvOnClk=3D advClk } function SldList(arr,curSld,fEnd) { this.mCurSld =3D curSld; this.mList =3D new Array(); var idx =3D 1; for(ii=3D0;ii 0) { PushSldList(sldList,fEnd); gCurSld =3D 1; } else if( PPTSld.event ) PPTSld.event.cancelBubble=3Dtrue } function PushSldList(arr,fEnd) { var ii =3D gSldStack.length; gSldStack[ii] =3D new SldList(arr,gCurSld,fEnd); GoToSld( gSldStack[ii].mList[0].mSldHref ); } function PopSldList() { if (gSldStack[gSldStack.length-1].fEndShow) EndShow() else { gCurSld =3D gSldStack[gSldStack.length-1].mCurSld; gSldStack[gSldStack.length-1] =3D null; gSldStack.length--; var sldList =3D gSldStack[gSldStack.length-1]; GoToSld( sldList.mList[gCurSld - 1].mSldHref ); } } var custShowList=3Dnew Array(); /********************************************* Navigation button implementation There are 2 types of buttons: ImgBtn, TxtBtn implemented as function objects. They share a similiar interface so the event handlers can call SetActive, for example, on a button=20 object without needing to know exactly=20 what type of button it is. **********************************************/ //---------------------------------- function ImgBtn( oId,bId,w,action ) //---------------------------------- { var t=3Dthis t.Perform =3D _IBP t.SetActive =3D _IBSetA t.SetInactive=3D _IBSetI t.SetPressed =3D _IBSetP t.SetDisabled=3D _IBSetD t.Enabled =3D _IBSetE t.ChangeIcon =3D null t.UserAction =3D action t.ChgState =3D _IBUI t.mObjId =3D oId t.mBorderId=3D bId t.mWidth =3D w t.mIsOn =3D t.mCurState =3D 0 } function _IBSetA() { if( this.mIsOn ) { obj=3Dthis.ChgState( gHiliteClr,gShadowClr,2 ) obj.style.posTop=3D0 } } function _IBSetI() { if( this.mIsOn ) { obj=3Dthis.ChgState( gFaceClr,gFaceClr,1 ) obj.style.posTop=3D0=20 } } function _IBSetP() { if( this.mIsOn ) { obj=3Dthis.ChgState( gShadowClr,gHiliteClr,2 ) obj.style.posLeft+=3D1; obj.style.posTop+=3D1 } } function _IBSetD() { =20 obj=3Dthis.ChgState( gFaceClr,gFaceClr,0 ) obj.style.posTop=3D0=20 } function _IBSetE( state ) { var t=3Dthis GetObj( t.mBorderId ).style.visibility=3D"visible" if( state !=3D t.mIsOn ) { t.mIsOn=3Dstate if( state ) t.SetInactive() else t.SetDisabled() } } function _IBP() { var t=3Dthis if( t.mIsOn ) { if( t.UserAction !=3D null ) t.UserAction() if( t.ChangeIcon ) { obj=3DGetObj(t.mObjId) if( t.ChangeIcon() ) obj.style.posLeft=3Dobj.style.posLeft+(t.mCurState-4)*t.mWidth else obj.style.posLeft=3Dobj.style.posLeft+(t.mCurState-0)*t.mWidth } t.SetActive() } =20 } function _IBUI( clr1,clr2,nextState ) { var t=3Dthis SetBorder( GetObj( t.mBorderId ),clr1,clr2 ) obj=3DGetObj( t.mObjId ) obj.style.posLeft=3Dobj.style.posLeft+(t.mCurState-nextState)*t.mWidth-obj= .style.posTop t.mCurState=3DnextState return obj } //----------------------------------------- function TxtBtn( oId,oeId,action,chkState ) //----------------------------------------- { var t=3Dthis t.Perform =3D _TBP t.SetActive =3D _TBSetA t.SetInactive=3D _TBSetI t.SetPressed =3D _TBSetP t.SetDisabled=3D _TBSetD t.SetEnabled =3D _TBSetE t.GetState =3D chkState t.UserAction =3D action t.ChgState =3D _TBUI t.mObjId =3D oId t.m_elementsId=3D oeId t.mIsOn =3D 1 } function _TBSetA() { var t=3Dthis if( t.mIsOn && !t.GetState() ) t.ChgState( gHiliteClr,gShadowClr,0,0 ) } function _TBSetI() { var t=3Dthis if( t.mIsOn && !t.GetState() ) t.ChgState( gFaceClr,gFaceClr,0,0 ) } function _TBSetP() { if( this.mIsOn ) this.ChgState( gShadowClr,gHiliteClr,1,1 ) } function _TBSetD() { =20 this.ChgState( gFaceClr,gFaceClr,0,0 ) this.mIsOn =3D 0 } function _TBSetE() { var t=3Dthis if( !t.GetState() ) t.ChgState( gFaceClr,gFaceClr,0,0 ) else t.ChgState( gShadowClr,gHiliteClr,1,1 ) t.mIsOn =3D 1 } function _TBP() { var t=3Dthis if( t.mIsOn ) {=20 if( t.UserAction !=3D null ) t.UserAction() if( !t.GetState ) return if( t.GetState() ) t.SetPressed() else t.SetActive() } =20 } function _TBUI( clr1,clr2,lOffset,tOffset ) { SetBorder( GetObj( this.mObjId ),clr1,clr2 ) Offset( GetObj( this.m_elementsId ),lOffset,tOffset ) } function Offset( obj, top, left ){ obj.style.top=3Dtop; obj.style.left=3Dle= ft } function SetBorder( obj, upperLeft, lowerRight ) { s=3Dobj.style; s.borderStyle =3D "solid" s.borderWidth =3D 1=20 s.borderLeftColor =3D s.borderTopColor =3D upperLeft s.borderBottomColor=3D s.borderRightColor =3D lowerRight } function GetBtnObj(){ return gBtnArr[window.event.srcElement.id] } function BtnOnOver(){ b=3DGetBtnObj(); if( b !=3D null ) b.SetActive() } function BtnOnDown(){ b=3DGetBtnObj(); if( b !=3D null ) b.SetPressed() } function BtnOnOut(){ b=3DGetBtnObj(); if( b !=3D null ) b.SetInactive() } function BtnOnUp() { b=3DGetBtnObj() if( b !=3D null ) b.Perform() else Upd() } function GetNtsState(){ return parent.gNtsOpen } function GetOtlState(){ return parent.gOtlOpen } function GetOtlTxtState(){ return parent.gOtlTxtExp } function NtsBtnSetFlag( fVal ) { s=3Ddocument.all.item( this.m_flagId ).style s.display=3D"none" if( fVal ) s.display=3D"" else s.display=3D"none" } function _BSetA_Border(){ b =3D gBtnArr[this.mObjId]; if( b !=3D null ) b.S= etActive() } function _BSetI_Border(){ b =3D gBtnArr[this.mObjId]; if( b !=3D null ) b.S= etInactive() } function _BSetP_Border(){ b =3D gBtnArr[this.mObjId]; if( b !=3D null ) b.S= etPressed() } function _BSetA_BorderImg() {=20 b =3D gBtnArr[this.mBorderId]=20 if( b !=3D null && this.mIsOn && !b.GetState() ) { obj=3Dthis.ChgState( gHiliteClr,gShadowClr,2 ) obj.style.posTop=3D0 } } function _BSetI_BorderImg() {=20 b =3D gBtnArr[this.mBorderId] if( b !=3D null && this.mIsOn && !b.GetState() ) { obj=3Dthis.ChgState( gFaceClr,gFaceClr,1 ) obj.style.posTop=3D0 } } var gHiliteClr=3D"THREEDHIGHLIGHT",gShadowClr=3D"THREEDSHADOW",gFaceClr=3D"= THREEDFACE" var gBtnArr =3D new Array() gBtnArr["nb_otl"] =3D new TxtBtn( "nb_otl","nb_otlElem",parent.ToggleOtlPan= e,GetOtlState ) gBtnArr["nb_otlElem"] =3D new TxtBtn( "nb_otl","nb_otlElem",parent.ToggleOt= lPane,GetOtlState ) gBtnArr["nb_nts"] =3D new ImgBtn( "nb_nts","nb_ntsBorder",10,parent.ToggleN= tsPane ) gBtnArr["nb_nts"].SetActive =3D _BSetA_BorderImg; gBtnArr["nb_nts"].SetInactive =3D _BSetI_BorderImg; gBtnArr["nb_ntsBorder"] =3D new TxtBtn( "nb_ntsBorder","nb_ntsElem",parent.= ToggleNtsPane,GetNtsState ) gBtnArr["nb_ntsElem"] =3D new TxtBtn( "nb_ntsBorder","nb_ntsElem",parent.To= ggleNtsPane,GetNtsState ) gBtnArr["nb_prevBorder"] =3D gBtnArr["nb_prev"]=3D new ImgBtn( "nb_prev","n= b_prevBorder",30,parent.GoToPrevSld ) gBtnArr["nb_nextBorder"] =3D gBtnArr["nb_next"]=3D new ImgBtn( "nb_next","n= b_nextBorder",30,parent.GoToNextSld ) gBtnArr["nb_sldshw"]=3D new ImgBtn( "nb_sldshw","nb_sldshwBorder",18,parent= .FullScreen ) gBtnArr["nb_sldshwBorder"] =3D new TxtBtn( "nb_sldshw","nb_sldshwBorder",pa= rent.FullScreen,null ) gBtnArr["nb_sldshwBorder"].SetActive =3D _BSetA_Border; gBtnArr["nb_sldshwBorder"].SetInactive =3D _BSetI_Border; gBtnArr["nb_sldshwText"] =3D new TxtBtn( "nb_sldshw","nb_sldshwText",parent= .FullScreen,null ) gBtnArr["nb_sldshwText"].SetActive =3D _BSetA_Border; gBtnArr["nb_sldshwText"].SetInactive =3D _BSetI_Border; gBtnArr["nb_voice"] =3D gBtnArr["nb_voiceBorder"] =3D new ImgBtn( "nb_voice= ","nb_voiceBorder",18,parent.ToggleVNarration ) gBtnArr["nb_otlTxtBorder"] =3D gBtnArr["nb_otlTxt"]=3D new ImgBtn( "nb_otlT= xt","nb_otlTxtBorder",23,parent.ToggleOtlText ) gBtnArr["nb_ntsBorder"].m_flagId=3D "nb_nts" gBtnArr["nb_ntsBorder"].SetFlag =3D NtsBtnSetFlag gBtnArr["nb_otlTxt"].ChangeIcon=3D GetOtlTxtState /********************************************* Context menu implementation _CM() is the function that's hooked up to the oncontextmenu event. Once we're asked to show the menu, we first build it by creating DIVs on-the-fly. Then we position it=20 within the screen area so it doesn't get clipped. Creating the DIVs using createElement() means we don't have to write out any extra HTML into the slide HTML files. **********************************************/ var sNext=3D"Next",sPrev=3D"Previous",sEnd=3D"End Show",sFont=3D"Arial",sAr= row=3D"Arrow",sFreeform=3D"Freeform",sRect=3D"Rectangle",sOval=3D"Oval" function ShowMenu() { BuildMenu(); var doc=3DPPTSld.document.body,x=3DPPTSld.event.clientX+doc.scrollLeft,y= =3DPPTSld.event.clientY+doc.scrollTop m =3D PPTSld.document.all.item("ctxtmenu") m.style.pixelLeft=3Dx if( (x+m.scrollWidth > doc.clientWidth)&&(x-m.scrollWidth > 0) ) m.style.pixelLeft=3Dx-m.scrollWidth m.style.pixelTop=3Dy if( (y+m.scrollHeight > doc.clientHeight)&&(y-m.scrollHeight > 0) ) m.style.pixelTop=3Dy-m.scrollHeight m.style.display=3D"" } function _CM() { if( !parent.IsFullScrMode() ) return; if(!PPTSld.event.ctrlKey) { ShowMenu() return false } else HideMenu() } function BuildMenu() { if( PPTSld.document.all.item("ctxtmenu") ) return var mObj=3DCreateItem( PPTSld.document.body ) mObj.id=3D"ctxtmenu" mObj.style.visibility=3D"hidden" var s=3DmObj.style s.position=3D"absolute" s.cursor=3D"default" s.width=3D"120px" SetCMBorder(mObj,"menu","black") var iObj=3DCreateItem( mObj ) SetCMBorder( iObj, "threedhighlight","threedshadow" ) iObj.style.padding=3D2 CreateMenuItem( iObj,sNext,M_GoNextSld,M_True ) CreateMenuItem( iObj,sPrev,M_GoPrevSld,M_HasPrevSld ) =09 CreateSeparator( iObj ) CreateMenuItem( iObj,sEnd,M_End,M_True ) mObj.style.visibility=3D"visible" } function Cancel() { window.event.cancelBubble=3Dtrue; window.event.returnVa= lue=3Dfalse } function Highlight() { ChangeClr("activecaption","threedhighlight") } function Deselect() { ChangeClr("threedface","menutext") } function Perform() { e=3DPPTSld.event.srcElement if( e.type=3D=3D"menuitem" && e.IsActive() ) e.Action() else PPTSld.event.cancelBubble=3Dtrue } function ChangeClr( bg,clr ) { e=3DPPTSld.event.srcElement if( e.type=3D=3D"menuitem" && e.IsActive() ) { e.style.backgroundColor=3Dbg e.style.color=3Dclr } } function M_HasPrevSld() { return( parent.HasPrevSld() ) } function M_GoNextSld() { if( gIsEndShow ) M_End(); else GoToNextSld() } function M_GoPrevSld() { if( gIsEndShow ) { gIsEndShow=3D0; history.back();= PPTSld.event.cancelBubble=3Dtrue; } else GoToPrevSld() } function M_True() { return true } function M_End() { window.close( self ) } function CreateMenuItem( node,text,action,eval ) { var e=3DCreateItem( node ) e.type=3D"menuitem" e.Action=3Daction e.IsActive=3Deval e.innerHTML=3Dtext if( !e.IsActive() ) e.style.color=3D"threedshadow" e.onclick=3DPerform e.onmouseover=3DHighlight e.onmouseout=3DDeselect s=3De.style; 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charset="us-ascii" The Knowledge Quartet - ICMI-15 ------=_NextPart_01C57358.EB6AF9E0 Content-Location: file:///C:/304ADD14/KnowledgeQuartet_files/outline.htm Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Content-Type: text/html; charset="us-ascii"
 No= tes
Slide Show
Outline
= = = =
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